Rust on fruit trees and shrubs
The summer cottage is usually divided into several sectors: a residential one with farm buildings, a garden garden where they grow their favorite vegetable crops, flower beds and a relaxation corner, which includes forbs, flower beds, ornamental shrubs, including conifers. An obligatory part of the dacha is the garden and the berry, and in it are your favorite pears, apple trees, cherries, plums, cherries, quinces of different ripening periods. The berry berry is rich in several varieties of raspberries, currants, gooseberries, blackberries, sea buckthorn. Beautiful garden and berry plot during flowering. But a period begins, and the blossoming leaves are covered with small yellow-brown dots, which gradually grow into large spots. Rusty yellow spots with fiery eyes cover the upper side of the leaves of apple trees, pears, plums, gooseberries, currants. It becomes clear that this is not mechanical damage or treatment of plants with the wrong drug (for example: a herbicide instead of a drug for diseases), but a real disease. Trees and shrubs are affected by “plant” or “biological” rust.
- The causative agent of rust and its development cycle
- Measures to protect plants from rust damage
- Rules for treating plants with chemical preparations against rust fungi
- Chemical Treatment Schemes Against Rust
- Protection of soda and berry plantings from rust with biological products
The causative agent of rust and its development cycle
The causative agent of the disease is Rust mushroomthat parasitizes on higher plants of many families. Plant infection begins in April in the form of brown-black dots on the upper side of the leaf blade of the affected plants. Each point is a local infection caused by the ingress of one or two fungal spores.
Spores are carried by wind and insect pests (ants, aphids), causing multiple damage to the leaves of fruiting plants. The dispersal of mature spores by the wind is capable of provoking a massive infection of garden crops of the same species over long distances.
Once in the host plant, the spores germinate, and the mycelium spreads within the tissues throughout the culture. Rusty yellow spots on the leaves of trees and shrubs affected by the disease are an external manifestation of a fungal disease, which is collectively called rust. In the summer period, outgrowths appear on the underside of the leaves of diseased plants in the form of threads on apple trees or nipples on pears. It formed disputes, ready to defeat the hosts.
The group of rust fungi is distinguished by the ability to form different types of spores in the development cycle. These spores can go through the entire development cycle on one or on different plants. According to these signs, they are divided into 2 groups:
Monoecious rust fungi remake the host and other plants of the same species: apple tree, other species and varieties of apple trees; pear, other varieties of pears, etc.
A group of rusty mushrooms of various sizes usually develops on two different plants, but ends the development cycle, usually on fruit crops.
- For apple trees affected by rusty fungi of different sizes, the main host of the fungus is juniper;
- for pears - Cossack juniper;
- for plums - weed anemone.
Pine, spruce and other conifers are very affected by rust.
From berry shrubs, currants and gooseberries, raspberries are very affected by rust. Their intermediate owners are sedge, Weymouth pine. Cedar pine - an intermediate host of black currant
By spring, growths (pustules) appear in the intermediate host, in which mature spores (basidiospores) are found. When they break, yellow dust or “rusty powder” spills out. These are ripe spores that fly under gusts of wind up to 60-100 meters and infect leaves, young shoots and fruits of fruit crops.
Fruit crops are an intermediate host of rust. Sick leaves of fruit berries and horticultural crops dry out, curl up. Early leaf fall begins. The condition of the plants is getting worse. Sharply reduced yield and quality of fruits. If protection measures are not taken, affected trees and shrubs will die.
Measures to protect plants from rust damage
To protect the garden and berry plantings from rust, a set of measures is required and their constant implementation. Protection will not bring effect in a single treatment, especially against mixed fungal diseases.
Protective measures can be divided into several groups:
Preventive measures against damage by rust fungi
- A systematic inspection of horticultural crops in order to diagnose diseases.
- The maintenance of the site in a condition free of weeds, especially from sedge, anemone, milkweed, which are intermediate hosts of the disease.
- Cleaning the garden from leaf fall. Sick leaves are best burned off site.
- Harvesting from a site of plants that serve as the main host of pathogenic fungi, or simultaneous treatment of both types of plants (junipers, conifers).
- For a garden and berry plot, only zoned and rust-resistant varieties and hybrids of fruit and berry crops should be used.
Agrotechnical measures against damage by rust fungi
Observe the requirements of agricultural technology recommended for culture, especially regarding irrigation. Avoid stagnation of irrigation water under trees and shrubs. In a humid environment, fungal breeds are especially fast. Be sure to track the onset of the disease in prolonged (7-10 days) wet weather.
Every year, in spring and autumn, it is necessary to whitewash the stem and skeletal branches of garden crops with a solution of freshly slaked lime with the addition of clay and glue (for better adhesion), copper-containing preparations (copper sulfate, cineb, cuproxate).
After the leaves fall completely or in the spring before buds open, carry out sanitary pruning. Remove all branches and bark with signs of disease (covered with tubercles or growths of orange color), capturing 10-15 cm of a healthy place. Branches, freed from diseased bark, treated with copper or iron sulfate, cover with garden varieties.
Dig the tree trunks in the fall or spring and treat the soil surface with a 5-7% solution of urea or ammonium nitrate, alternating with a 4-5% solution of copper sulfate.
Be sure to treat the tree crowns with antifungal drugs. In the spring, additionally arrange a shower of trace elements with substances that help strengthen immunity to diseases.
Destroy juniper, other coniferous and non-fruit plants, grasses that are rusty in the area. Process their location several times with boiling water or copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid or other anti-rust preparations.
Rules for treating plants with chemical preparations against rust fungi
In private areas, it is not recommended to use chemicals to control crop diseases. If preference is given to chemical preparations, then the working solution for spraying should be prepared strictly in accordance with the recommendations. Of the drugs, give preference to pesticides of systemic, systemic-contact and contact action.
Take all sanitary protection measures (high shoes, closed clothing, headgear, goggles, a respirator, gloves). At the end of the processing of plants, change clothes and take a shower.
Treat plants in the morning after the dew drops before 11 o’clock or after 16-17 o’clock in the evening in dry, calm weather.
Drain pesticides into a special pit or place inaccessible to children, animals, birds.
To finish processing with pesticides 30-35 days before harvesting (unless otherwise required in the recommendations) and never process plants during flowering.
To reduce the load on the plants, spraying is best done with tank mixtures, combining several drugs against diseases and pests in one solution. Before mixing, first check the preparations for compatibility.
Chemical Treatment Schemes Against Rust
One can propose (as examples) several treatment schemes for plants affected by rust. They are easy to prepare, but require strict implementation of the recommendations.
Experienced gardeners (no doubt) have other compositions of tank mixtures in their arsenal, but in any case, the use of chemicals requires attention and treatment at certain periods (phases) of plant development. Usually, all treatments are carried out before and after flowering, so as not to destroy beneficial insects (bees, bumblebees, carnivorous insects - ground beetles, ladybugs).
1. Before budding, treat the trees with a 2 - 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid. Repeat treatment with 1% solution during budding and after flowering. The last treatment is carried out at the beginning of the growth of the fruits.
2. In the same phases, treat the first time with 1% copper sulphate (blue spraying), the second with copper chloride, or ordan, oxychome. You can use the drug Abiga-Peak. The third spraying should be done with cuprosil or 1% Bordeaux liquid. Some gardeners recommend again spraying with 1% Bordeaux liquid again after 10-12 days.
3. The topaz chemical fungicide is effective against rust. Triple processing is sufficient to protect against rust. Treatments begin in the phase of bud blooming, immediately after flowering and in the phase of fruit growth.
4. The first and second treatments should be carried out with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid. It can be replaced with drugs stopped, champion. The third treatment should be carried out with colloidal sulfur or thiovitis. For the fourth treatment, you can use the propi plus drug, any other drug that acts on several types of fungal diseases.
If it is undesirable to remove the source of infection (juniper, other conifers), then both types of plants are treated. For the destruction of fungi on the main sources of rust infection, the following treatment schemes can be recommended. Note: when processing junipers, conifers, weeds, at the same time continue processing fruit and berry plantings with the recommended preparations.
If the bushes are healthy, then as a preventive measure they are treated 2-3 times in the warm period with the following drugs: scor, bayleton, cineb, Bordeaux liquid. It is recommended to treat plants in early spring and late autumn with cuproxate.
You can use other copper-containing preparations, and spray the plants up to 6 times during the growing season (they are not used for food), with obligatory treatment in late autumn and early spring. Special preparations saprol and dithan are released. Spraying with these drugs is carried out alternately with an interval of 7-8 days.
To increase the resistance of junipers and other conifers to rust and other fungal diseases, it is advisable to treat plants with micronutrient fertilizers and immunostimulants.
A special preparation, saprol (triforin), has been proposed for the treatment of juniper. Spraying begins in early spring and continues the entire warm period with a gap of 7-10 days.
It is systematically necessary to inspect and remove diseased shoots. If the bush is badly damaged, it can be cut off completely, leaving 1-2 live buds at the base. Dig the soil around the trimmed bush. Make digging a complete fertilizer nitroammofosku better kemir. In late autumn or spring, treat the soil with urea or ammonium nitrate (5-7% solution), mulch. It is more expedient to transplant the trimmed bush to another place, at a greater distance from fruit and berry plantings.
Protection of soda and berry plantings from rust with biological products
In order to get an ecologically clean crop in summer residences it is necessary to use biological products to protect. They are based on effective microorganisms and do not harm human health, animals and beneficial insects. Biological products are non-toxic, do not accumulate in fruits and other parts of plants. The protective effect of biological products is about 3 weeks. They can process plants until the harvest.
They are easily mixed with other biological products in tank mixtures, which reduces the number of treatments for various pests and diseases. However, their effective action is manifested only in a certain range of positive temperatures (from +12 to +18 ° C) and the exact observance of proportions in the manufacture of working solutions. If the requirements are not complied with or only 1-2-3 treatments are performed, the effect will not be manifested.
In the gardener's first-aid kit, there must be a set of biological products for the treatment of vegetable, garden and berry crops. To protect plants from rust, trichodermin, planriz, phytosporin-M, gamair (bactericide), phyto-doctor, and haupsin are used. The latter drug stands out for its dual action. It not only destroys fungal diseases, but also a number of pests.
Preparation of working solutions of biological products
To destroy rust and other fungal diseases, a working solution is prepared at the rate of 100 ml of biological product per 10 liters of water. Spraying begins with the budding phase of the buds and continues the entire growing season (except for the flowering period) 2-3 times a month.
Effectively protects garden plants from many fungal diseases, including brown rust. It has a strong growth-stimulating effect on plants. For spraying, a working solution of 50 ml of planris per 10 l of water is used.
According to the list of effective suppression of pathogenic fungi, it is equal to planris. The rate of consumption of a biological product per 10 liters of water is 30 g. Spraying is carried out throughout the growing season 2 times a month. The phyto-doctor increases immunity to diseases and promotes the active development of fruit crops.
For spraying plants during the growing season, use a working solution consisting of 15 ml of biological product per 10 l of water. The same solution can handle the fruits during storage.
For the treatment of plants, along with working solutions of individual biological products, tank mixtures can be used in the following composition: dissolve 100 ml of biological preparations of trichodermin and haupsin in 10 l of water, 50 ml of planriz and ecoberin, add 30 g of phyto-doctor. Before mixing, check the preparations for compatibility. Spray trees and shrubs (all) every 10 days throughout the growing season.
The article lists only a few biological products. Having studied the effect of other biological products, you can independently select tank mixtures and grow healthy, environmentally friendly crops without serious consequences for the environment and family members.