Cherry - girlfriend cherry
Cherry is very thermophilic, but now in Russia varieties are developed that grow and bear fruit in harsh climatic conditions.
Of the recent achievements of our breeders, we can name the varieties ‘Fatezh’, ‘Chermashnaya’, ‘Sinyavskaya’ and ‘Crimean’. Over the past ten years of observation, the yield on cherries of these varieties was on average twice as high as on cherries.
Cherry, or bird cherry (Prunus avium) - a woody plant (up to 10 meters tall) from the Rosaceae family, grows wild in the forests of Ukraine, southern Russia, the Crimea, the Caucasus, and is also widely distributed in culture.
Cherry, like its close relative, cherry, belongs to the Rosaceae family. True, cherries have several advantages.
Thanks to the majestic crowns, leaves of different shades and bright berries, it is decorative not only in spring, but throughout the summer. She has a rich palette of colors - from pale pink and yellow to almost white, from bright and dark red to almost black.
- Unlike cherries, sweet cherries do not suffer from coccomycosis and moniliosis.
- Pests do not like her so much and attack only in dry years. And finally, cherries are much tastier and healthier than cherries.
Leaves are shortly pointed, elliptically ovoid, serrate, slightly wrinkled; petioles with two glands at the base of the plate, up to 16 cm long.
White flowers in the umbrellas. Five sepals and petals, many stamens, one pistil.
Fruit - a sweet, spherical or slightly cordate black, yellow or red drupes, in wild-growing smaller than in cultivated ones, up to 2 cm in diameter.
Cherry blossoms in late March - early April, bears fruit from the second half of May.
As usual, you need to start by choosing a place to land. Even if you have a winter-hardy variety, the site should be protected from the north winds.. A good option is gently sloping, south or southwest slopes, as well as places located on the south side of the buildings. A small hill (but not a hill) is desirable, it can also be done artificially by raising the soil level by half a meter. Cherry - photophilous cultures.
Basic soil requirements: sufficiently fertile, well aerated, moisture-resistant and moisture-permeable, by type - light medium loamy or sandy loam. Unsuitable heavy clay, peaty soils, as well as deep sandstones. Sweet cherry is demanding on moisture, but does not tolerate water stagnation even for a short period. Therefore, it can not be planted in areas with a close occurrence of groundwater.
For cross-pollination, at least 2-3 varieties are planted on the site. It is very good if cherries grow in the garden, the flowering dates of which coincide with the flowering of cherries.
Seedlings are planted in early spring before the buds swell, but you need to prepare for this in the fall. The bottom of the landing pit (depth 50-60 cm), width 80 cm) is loosened, 1-2 humus buckets are poured, mixed with the top layer of the earth and left. In the spring, 0.3-0.4 kg of superphosphate, 100-120 g of sodium sulfate (1 kg of ash) are added to the pit and mixed. Sweet cherry does not need a lot of fertilizer. This can lead to the formation of very strong growths, which often do not have time to mature by the end of the growing season and freeze out in winter.
If the seedlings ate a little dried during transportation, immerse them after trimming the roots in water for 6-10 hours.
Buried landing is not permissible for cherries. So that the root neck is at the level of the soil, raise the seedling during planting by 4-5 cm, because in the future the soil will surely settle slightly. Around, make a hole, at the edges of which form a roller, pour a bucket of water there. After watering, mulch the soil with peat or humus. If the seedling is two-year-old, with a branched crown, shorten the branches, subordinating them to the central leader. This can only be done in the early stages of planting. If you are late, then you can not cut the seedlings. Reschedule this operation for next spring. The distance between the trees should be at least 3 m.
Excessive, prolonged growth of cherry shoots in the fall is undesirable. At the same time, the winter hardiness of plants is significantly reduced. Therefore, fresh manure and large doses of nitrogen are recommended, and you need to fertilize the tree only in the spring, no later than April-May. All work on tillage in the near-stem circle must be completed by mid-September. Phosphate fertilizers will help prepare the tree for winter, which will be applied in September (40-60 g of granular superphosphate per 1 sq. M of the crown projection area).
Cherry sprout growth is intense, so it has to be restrained by annual forming pruning. Spend it only in the early spring before the swelling of the kidneys. You can’t do this in autumn or winter. The task of the gardener is to keep the tree within certain limits. During the growth period before the fruiting begins, 1/5 annual shoots are shortened by 1/5. At the age of 5 years, due to weak branching, the tree is rarely thinned. In the future, be sure to remove all the branches that go inside the crown, the branches that are not well located, and prevent the formation of sharp forks. When sanitary pruning, remove broken, diseased and dry branches with the obligatory cleaning of the sections and processing them with garden putty. In addition, whitewash trunks and bases of skeletal branches in autumn and spring, cover them for the winter with spruce branches or other material from rodents.
During the summer, 3 additional irrigation is carried out, each time mulching or loosening the soil crust. Pruning is carried out only in spring, removing annual branches, the central conductor should be 20 cm above the skeletal branches.
While the garden is young, strawberries, flowers and berry bushes can be planted in the aisles, but the cherries will close quickly, so a planting of this type should not be counted on for many years.
In the year of planting, the soil is maintained in the form of black vapor. In this case, weeds are completely destroyed during the entire growing season. The next year, the diameter of the trunk circle is at least 1 m. Then another 0.5 m is added each year. This area must be kept completely clean from weeds and covered with mulching material.
Cherry blossoms early and bears fruit, for this large reserves of nutrients in the soil are needed; they are replenished in the fall, combining organic and mineral nutrients, the amount of fertilizer is set after soil analysis.
It is advisable to plant fertilizers to a depth of 20 cm. Dry fertilizers can have a negative effect: in arid regions, it is advisable to first dissolve mineral fertilizers in water and only then bring them into the zone of greatest accumulation of suction roots.
It is useless to directly make solutions under the stem: there are roots that are practically unable to absorb nutrients.
Productivity can be improved by using green fertilizer.. For this purpose, legumes are selected - vetch, lupine, peas, sainfoin, etc. Honey plants, mustard and phacelia, are also needed. Sowing of green manure begins in the 2nd half of the growing season, so that in the fall to get a normal grass stand for mowing and seeding in near-stem circles.
Both young and adult trees are sensitive to a lack of moisture in the soil, additional watering will never hurt, but they are especially useful before the onset of winter cold, and watering is not accidentally called winter winter: do not rush to carry them out. Choose the time before loosening the soil.
Winter irrigation is much more useful and effective than spring water, while the soil is saturated with moisture to full moisture capacity. If it was not possible to carry out such watering, then in the spring, before flowering, it is necessary to correct this serious miscalculation.
Cherry trees have a powerful trunk, a strong skeleton with strong skeletal branches, with a pronounced longline distribution on the stem, especially the branches of the first and second order, which in most varieties depart at an angle of 40-50 °. The shape of the crown can be different: pyramidal, wide-spread, spherical.
In cherries, mainly sparse-tier and cup-shaped crowns are formed, as in cherries. Sparse-tier crown is created on varieties with good branching and form it from 5-6 main skeletal branches. In the first tier, branches of the first order are left, 2 of which can be adjacent, and the third should be 15-20 cm higher than the first two. In the second tier, 2 branches are left. The second tier is placed at a distance of at least 70 cm from the lower first tier. Over 2 branches of the second tier, a single branch is formed at a distance of 30 cm from them. The central conductor in this case is cut out one year after the formation of the last single branch.
It is important to pay special attention to the angles of branching when forming the crown of cherry, since the wood is quite fragile and when the branch is broken off, a deep wound is formed along the entire length of the stem to the soil, which often leads to illness and even death of the tree. The most desirable branch angle is 45-50 °. A whorled arrangement of branches is not allowed. The semi-skeletal branches of the crown form two in two on the branches of the lower tier. They should be placed at a distance of at least 50 cm from the stem and from each other. Semi-skeletal branches are best formed from branches having an inclined position, or to give them such a position by a garter. When forming a cup-shaped crown above the stem, 4-5 skeletal branches are laid.
Cherries, like cherries, are prone to active growth in the first 5 years and form long annual growths that need to be shortened, leaving no more than 40-50 cm of their length. On highly branched young trees, summer pruning of shoots is used, which helps to accelerate crown formation and increase yield. This is due to the fact that on long branches flower buds are formed in the middle part of the branch, and after summer pruning, their number increases, and the saturation of bouquet branches also increases.
To form semi-skeletal branches, pruning is carried out as soon as the shoots reach a length of 70 cm, they are shortened by 20 cm, taking into account the overlap of the shoots. Shoots that are not used in the formation of the skeleton of the crown are shortened to a length of 20-30 cm. The crown of cherries must also be shortened in height to 4-5 m, cutting the skeletal branches above the external branch.
After pruning, the wounds must be treated and covered with garden varieties, as cherries exhibit abundant gumming.
Sweet cherry propagation
Propagate the cherry seeds and grafting. It must be remembered that when propagated by seeds from pollinated varieties, the majority of cherries have inedible fruits. Wild cherries are propagated by seeds to obtain stocks. Wild cherry rootstock is compatible with all varieties.
The best and frost-resistant stock for cherries is common cherries. Such trees are not very tall, characterized by increased winter hardiness, increased productivity and easily tolerate the standing groundwater. The disadvantage is the increased formation of root shoots.
To grow stock, seeds are sown in the ground in early spring. So that the seedlings do not outgrow, they are sown in the soil densely enough, with a row spacing of 10 cm. On sandy loamy loamy soils, the seeds are sown to a depth of 5 cm. With the emergence of seedlings, they are thinned out, leaving the seedlings of cherry 3-4 cm. The soil near the seedlings is necessary keep in a clean, loose state, and also remember to fight rodents.
Cherry cultivars usually propagated by grafting. The most common way is budding. Usually it is carried out in the second half of July - early August. For fruiting trees, shoots with a length of at least 40 cm are taken for budding, leaving a base with 6-7 buds when cut. Short shoots are mainly flowering and are not used for budding.
It is possible to granulate the cherry with an eye without wood and with wood. The woodless method usually gives better results. Cherry can have a large percentage of unplanted eyes, so it’s best to plant several eyes on each stock.
How to save cherries from birds?
Gardeners know that growing a good crop is half the battle. It is important to preserve it. And first of all, from birds, which literally in an hour can destroy the crop. No wonder the cherry is called "bird cherry". They don’t come up against birds: they put stuffed animals, rattles, mirrors, hang foil, reflective tapes, shiny CDs, Christmas garlands. Plush cats are planted on trees and light blue flags are hung (it is believed that birds are afraid of this color). Pull the wire between the trees. Yes, all this helps, but for a short time. Birds quickly understand everything, and, not being afraid of "horror stories," they again sit on cherries. Really can help the networks that cover the trees. They are commercially available, lightweight and comfortable.
Golden Loshitskaya. The variety is bred from seedlings of Denisena variety yellow from free pollination. The tree is very tall. The crown is wide-pyramidal, somewhat spreading with age, strongly branched, leafyness is good. It blooms in the middle. The variety is self-infertile. Good pollinators - varieties Zhurba, Severnaya, Narodnaya, Denisena yellow. The fruits are small (3–3.5 g), round-heart-shaped, cream-colored, sometimes with a light, soft pink tan on the sunny side. The pulp is tender, sweet, with a light refreshing pleasant acid. The stone is small, ovoid, well separated from the pulp. It bears fruiting in the 3rd year after planting. The fruits ripen in the first decade of July. The variety is winter-hardy, medium resistant to coccomycosis, high-yielding.
People’s. The variety is derived from seedlings of Pashkevich cherry from free pollination. A tree of moderate growth, the crown is wide-pyramidal, densely covered with fouling branches. The variety is partially self-fertile, with cross-pollination, the percentage of useful ovary is much higher. The best pollinators are the varieties Golden Loshitskaya, Liberation. Fruits are medium sized (4 g), rounded. The skin is dark cherry or almost black, shiny. The flesh is dark red, juicy, tender, of excellent taste. The juice is very colored. The stone is round-oval, small, well separated from the pulp. The variety is highly winter-hardy, resistant to coccomycosis, productive.
Zhurba (Snow Maiden). The variety was bred by sowing Denisena sweet cherry seeds from free pollination. A tree of medium growth, the crown is wide-pyramidal, with age, the lower branches hang slightly. Blooms in the early stages. The variety is partially self-fertile. Good pollinators - varieties Narodnaya, Severnaya, Zolotaya Loshitskaya, Liberation. Fruits are medium-sized (3.5 g), heart-shaped. The skin is dull white. The pulp is light yellow, medium-dense, juicy, sweet, pleasant taste. The stone is small, well separated from the pulp. It begins bearing fruit in the 4th year after planting and ripens in the first ten days of July. The variety is highly winter resistant, medium resistant to coccomycosis, high-yielding annually.
Nutmeg. The variety is derived from seedlings of Pashkevich cherry from free pollination. The tree is medium-sized, relatively branching, forming a broad-pyramidal crown with densely spaced fouling branches. Self-fertility is low. The best pollinators are varieties Severnaya, Zolotaya Loshitskaya. Fruits are medium sized (3.8 g), rounded. The skin is purple-black, shiny. The flesh is dark red, medium density, sweet, with a muscat flavor, the juice is very colored. The stone is medium in size, well separated from the pulp. It comes into bearing in the 4th-5th year after planting. The fruits ripen in the first half of July. The variety is winter-hardy, medium-resistant to coccomycosis, productive.
Syubarovskaya. The variety was bred by crossing the variety of North cherries with the Victory cherry variety. The tree is vigorous, with a wide pyramidal crown. The best pollinators are varieties Severnaya, Narodnaya, Muscat. Fruits are large (4.6 g), heart-shaped.The skin is dark red, with a waxy coating. The pulp is dark red, medium density, sweet taste. The juice is intensely colored. It begins bearing fruit in the 4th year after planting. The fruits ripen in late June - early July. The variety is winter-hardy, resistant to coccomycosis, productive.
Gronkovaya. The variety was bred by pollination of the North cherry variety with a mixture of pollen
sweet cherry. The tree is medium-sized, with a broad-pyramidal crown of medium density. Blooms in the early stages. The best pollinators - varieties Narodnaya, Beauty.
Zhurba. Fruits are large (4.8 g), heart-shaped. The pulp is dark red, medium density, high palatability, juice is intensely colored. The stone is small, well separated from the pulp. The earliest ripening variety of Belarusian breeding (2-3rd decade of June). The variety is winter-hardy, resistant to coccomycosis, productive.
North. The variety was bred by sowing seeds of cultivated cherries from free pollination. The tree is medium-sized, with a back-pyramidal compact, but not dense crown, with a large number of fouling branches. Good pollinators are varieties Zolotaya Loshitskaya, Beauty, Muscat, Narodnaya, Pobeda. The fruits are medium (3.4 g), dull-hearted. The main color of the skin is whitish, with an intensely pink blurred blush. The flesh is light pink, gently sweet, with a light pleasant acid. The stone is medium, well separated from the pulp. The fruits ripen in mid-July. The variety is highly resistant to coccomycosis, high-yielding annually.
Festival. The variety was bred by sowing seeds of the American variety Beauty from Ohio from free pollination. Zoned in Lithuania (for home gardening). The tree is vigorous, with a rare spreading crown. The best pollinators - varieties Zaslonovskaya, Zhurba, Beauty, Muscat. The fruits are medium (3.5-4 g), heart-shaped. The main color of the skin is cream, the integument is intensely pink. The pulp is creamy, tender, juicy, sweet, with a slight pleasant acid. It bears fruiting on the 5th year after planting. The variety is winter-hardy, high-yielding.
Zaslonovskaya. The tree is medium-sized, with a wide pyramidal compact crown. Good pollinators - varieties Victory, Zhurba, Liberation. The fruits are medium (3.5-4 g), round-heart-shaped, cream-colored. The pulp is tender, juicy, sweet, with soft, refreshing acid. The stone is small, well separated from the pulp. The fruits ripen in the third decade of June. The variety is winter-hardy, productive.
Beauty. The variety was bred from seedlings of the American variety Beauty from Ohio from free pollination. Good pollinators are varieties Severnaya, Likernaya, Zhurba, Drogana yellow. Fruits are large (6-7 g), heart-shaped. The main color is light yellow, the integument is raspberry red with a bright cherry red blush on the sunny side. Creamy pulp, medium density, juicy, sweet, with refreshing acid. The variety, freezing in harsh winters, resistant to coccomycosis, medium-yield.
Victory. The variety was bred by sowing seeds of cherry Gaucher black from free pollination. The tree is strongly growing, with a rare, slightly spreading crown, with a large number of overgrowing branches. The variety is almost self-infertile. Good pollinators are varieties Severnaya, Muskatnaya, Zolotaya Lososhitskaya. Fruits are large (7 g), dull-hearted. The skin is dark red, shiny. The pulp is dark red, juicy, dense, sweet, with hardly noticeable pleasant acid. The stone is small, well separated from the pulp. The fruits ripen in late June and early July. The variety is weakly winter-resistant, medium-resistant to coccomycosis, medium-yielding.
Valery Chkalov. The variety was bred at the Michurin Central Genetic Laboratory (seedling of the pink cherry variety). The degree of self-fertility is low. Pollinators - varieties Red Dense, Syubarovskaya, Narodnaya, Zhurba. Fruits are large (7 g), heart-shaped. The pulp is dark red, juicy, dense, sweet, with refreshing acid. The juice is colored. The stone is medium in size, well separated from the pulp. The variety is relatively winter-hardy, medium-resistant to coccomycosis, medium-yielding.
Diseases and Pests
Coccomycosis. It affects mainly leaves, less - shoots, stalks and fruits. It causes the greatest damage in rainy years. In June, small reddish spots appear on the leaves. Initially, they are small, then increase in size, merge, often occupying most of the leaf blade. With a strong lesion of coccomycosis, the leaves fall prematurely, the secondary growth of shoots begins. This reduces the yield, delays its ripening, weakens plants, and reduces their winter hardiness. The mushroom hibernates in the tissues of the affected leaves.
Moniliosis. People call it gray rot or a monilial burn. The disease affects all stone fruits, causes the drying of flowers and rot of the fruit. During the summer, more and more new branches dry out. Severe damage to the shoots and branches can cause the death of the whole tree. In wet weather, gray pads with fungal spores form on the ovaries. Fruits are covered with the same merged pads over time, wrinkled and dry.
Control measures. Protective treatment with 1% Bordeaux liquid is carried out immediately after flowering, then 2 weeks after harvest. At the same time, affected shoots, fruits and fallen leaves are removed and destroyed, gum wounds are treated. Instead of Bordeaux liquid, other permitted fungicides are suitable.
Kleasterosporiosis or perforated spotting - affects the buds, flowers, leaves, shoots and branches. On the leaves, the disease manifests itself in the form of brown spots with a darker border on the edge. They fall out, resulting in holes. Spots on the shoots cause tissue death, gum disease, the fruits lose weight or dry completely. Infected leaves fall prematurely. The mushroom overwinters in the tissues of shoots and cracks in the bark.
Waiting for your advice!