Powdery mildew control measures
So that vegetables from the mealy guest do not disappear, the farm must be kept in proper order. The source of this ubiquitous infection is all affected parts of plants, including seeds that enter the soil.
A significant accumulator of infection is leafy, fruit fall, the remains of diseased plants buried in the soil. The first method for dealing with dew is not to leave diseased plants under digging, dangling diseased fruits and leaves, whole plants should immediately be taken away and burned. Sown seeds or planted seedlings are pathogenic through the root system and are introduced into the plant. Gradually, the mycelium captures the entire internal space of the plant (at first the disease externally manifests itself only in the lag of development, wrinkling and bending of leaf blades, especially pumpkin ones). During this period, it is advisable to spray the plants with systemic drugs. Contact will not have an effect. They process plants later, when the lesion appears externally in the form of spots on leaves and stems. Closer examination of the mycelium reveals dots of dark (to black) colors - bags with spores, which, when ripe, open and spread summer conidiospores, the development cycle of which closes to winter forms of spores. Widespread on vegetable crops are powdery mildew, real and false.
Powdery mildew is an omnivorous pathogen that affects all young organs of plants. Powdery mildew has recently begun to affect a larger area of plants, developing forms specific to particular species (oak, birch) or a whole group of flower, vegetable, fruit and berry crops (apple, peach, viburnum, honeysuckle, gooseberry, rose, raspberry, currant). Of the vegetables, pumpkin (cucumbers, zucchini, melon), beets, peas, dill, tomatoes and others suffer most.
The mycelium always develops inside, but usually manifests itself at the end of May and later on the upper side of the leaves in the form of lightening tissues or spots of yellowish and different colors, gradually capturing the entire leaf blade. The mycelium, spreading on the upper side of the leaf, simultaneously forms special outgrowths, with which it is introduced into the plant and feeds at its expense. Later, the mycelium with a felt coating covers the entire plant. Under optimal conditions, secondary infection begins with ripened conidiospores, and in winter with winter forms that winter in the remaining biomass (leaves, tops, weeds, fruits) and in the soil. Knowing the biological cycle of the development of powdery mildew, one can easily build a system of protective measures, which are divided into physical (agrotechnical), chemical, biological, and folk.
Downy mildew or peronosporosis is caused by fungi of the peronospore family. In contrast to the present, at the initial stage it is manifested by a lesion of the lower side of the leaf blade. On the underside of the leaves appears a touch of grayish-white or with a purple tint. At the same time, the upper side of the leaf is covered with separate spots of brownish-reddish or slightly greenish color. Leaves turn yellow, corrugate, fall off. The plant stops growing, takes a dwarf form. The pathogen populates loose, with excessively large cells, plants that are formed under the influence of nitrogen overdoses, accompanied by a lack of calcium. The peculiarity of the defeat by downy mildew is the need for high temperature and a morningless morning, and moisture and low temperatures are already necessary for the rapid growth and spread of the pathogen.
The optimal conditions for infection are dry air (60-70% humidity) with a temperature in the range +18 .. + 20 ° С. Therefore, in dry, hot weather evening evening sprinkling is required, creating a slightly moist microclimate in the thick of plants. Long-term humidity promotes the spread of oospores, which, with epiphytotic infection, can destroy completely planting vegetables in 2-7 days. The development cycle of both types of dew is the same. In summer, plants are infected with conidiospores, like in powdery mildew.
Agrotechnical measures to protect against powdery mildew
- Contain vegetable beds without weeds and vegetable waste after harvesting.
- Do not dig sick tops in the soil when digging. Remove and burn affected plant residues.
- In case of severe damage to plants in the previous summer with powdery mildew, it is imperative that the spring before planting / sowing vegetables and other crops to decontaminate the soil with a 2-3% solution of copper sulfate (not to get carried away, since the accumulation of copper inhibits the plants) or potassium permanganate for small termination.
- Use only zoned varieties resistant to powdery mildew in home vegetable growing.
The use of biofungicides
The use of chemicals is not recommended at home. Today, the market is replete with special biological antifungal drugs (biofungicides) to control powdery mildew. These include phytosporin, gamair, alirin, integral, mycosan, phytocide, bactofit, effect, phyto-doctor and others. In terms of their effect on the pathogen, biological products work almost identically. Some of the drugs are contact, others are systemic, that is, they penetrate the plants and destroy the pathogen there. To enhance their effect, it is good to prepare tank mixtures for treatments, strictly observing the dosages and compatibility checks. When buying a drug, ask for accompanying recommendations, which give doses, treatment periods, dilution rates and other necessary information for organizing the proper processing of plants.
When working with biofungicides, the treatment of plants begins 1-2 weeks after transplanting seedlings or mass seedlings of sown crops and it is carried out every 10-12 days throughout the growing season, up to harvesting. Biofungicides are easily washed off by irrigation water and rains, therefore, they need more frequent repetitions than chemical treatment. But the increase in time spent on processing pays off for their perfect harmlessness to humans and animals.
Do not use chemicals at home. If there is an epiphytotic lesion, you can use the drugs, but only before flowering and immediately after it, and then switch to biological or folk remedies. Of the chemicals (the least harmful to the body), we can recommend processing plants with 1% solution of copper sulfate, solutions of drinking or soda ash. Mix 25 g of the drug with 5 liters of hot water, dissolve 25 g of laundry soap (as an adhesive). Stir the solution, cool and treat the plants. These treatments are carried out before and after flowering. Of the other drugs, it is possible to use, with all health protection measures and careful observance of the dosages, topaz, topsin-M, bayleton, fundazim, fundozol, scor, quadrice-SK, tilt, rake, Previkur.
Folk remedies for powdery mildew
Powdery mildew can be depleted by the means that are in every household: ash, garlic, potassium permanganate, mustard, decoctions and infusions of herbs with fungicidal properties.
- For cooking ash solution in 5 liters of water heated to 40 ° C, stir 0.5 kg of ash and leave to infuse for 4-5 days. The solution is stirred several times a day. Filter, add water up to 10 l, dissolve 50 g of laundry soap and spray the plants, trying to moisten the upper and lower parts of the leaves. The ash residue is diluted with water and the plants are watered under the root.
- If you urgently need to spray plants, you can prepare a quick solution. 150 g of ash mixed with 5 liters of water, boil for 0.5 hours. Cool, filter and sprinkle the plants.
- Sprinkle plants potassium permanganateby preparing a solution of 2.5 g of the drug with 10 l of water. Provides good results when spraying at the beginning of the development of the disease after 5 days for 2 weeks.
- 250 g garlic finely chop, insist in 10 l of water for 24 hours, filter and treat the plants.
- If the need for processing plants coincided with the removal garlic arrows, then fill in 0.5 buckets of arrows with water, leave for a day. Filter and sprinkle plants with this infusion.
- In the household or first-aid kit, there is always dry mustard. Two tablespoons without top of dry mustard diluted in a bucket of hot water. The cooled solution can be used for spraying and for irrigation.
Recommendations for the use of herbs with fungicidal properties are many on special sites. But, using decoctions and infusions of herbs, be careful. Do not use poisonous herbs, as they can cause poisoning of family members.
Be careful when using medications for spraying. (iodine, etc.), strongly recommended today on sites and in programs. Iodine in small doses is a medicine, but accumulating in the fruits, becomes a poison for the body. And such fruits will not bring benefits to the body. Remember! Everything is good in moderation.