How to fertilize decorative and fruit plants in the second half of summer?
How fast is the time! It seems that just recently we planted seedlings in the garden, watched the buds open on the trees, inhaled the aroma of blossoming apple trees, plums and cherries ... And now summer is at its zenith, the middle of July has come. At this time, all the trees and bushes spend a lot of energy, micro and macro elements to maintain the complex processes that take place inside them. And in order to provide them with blooming flowering, improve the taste of fruits and help to better winter, it is necessary to apply fertilizers in a timely and correct manner, that is, to carry out multi-purpose feeding. At the same time, the nitrogen in them must be minimized.
What should be fertilizer in the second half of summer?
Gardeners begin to feed decorative and fruit plants in early spring. At this time, the main emphasis is on nitrogen fertilizer in combination with phosphorus - superphosphate. This is necessary, since there is a massive growth of shoots, and nitrogen contributes to this process. But if you provoke the emergence of a new young shoot at the end of summer, then the plant will not be able to prepare for winter, and most of it will freeze.
That is, by mid-July, nitrogen fertilizing should be gradually reduced and possibly reduced to zero. Since mid-summer, we focus on phosphorus-potash fertilizers. Why? Phosphorus is responsible for the root formation of the plant. Potassium - for laying the fruit, flower buds and shoots of substitution, preparing the plant for the coming winter.
The rule “minimum nitrogen” in the second half of summer applies to perennial plants that are to winter in open ground. Annual flowers even need nitrogen fertilizing at this time, but nitrogen fertilizing for vegetables is better to finish 1.5 months before harvest to avoid the accumulation of nitrates.
In addition to the listed macroelements, flowering shrubs and fruit trees in the second half of summer must be fed with microelements:
- Boron - affects the formation of growth points of stems and root system, the taste of fruits and the number of ovaries.
- Manganese - affects the development of leaves and root system.
- Copper - prevents a disease such as "dryness".
- Iron - participates in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll, prevents the development of "chlorosis" and other diseases.
- Sulfur - affects the development of leaf mass, etc.
It is very easy for people who are not versed in agricultural chemistry to get confused in all these names. Complex mineral fertilizers specially designed for flowering, ornamental shrubs and fruit plants will come to their aid.
As a rule, nitrogen is also part of these fertilizers. It is necessary for the assimilation of other macro- and microelements. Make sure that its amount does not exceed 10%, and preferably 6%.
Superphosphate - the main supplier of phosphorus. Potassium is saturated with plants such fertilizers as potassium phosphate, potassium sulfate, potassium humate.
Top dressing with these mineral fertilizers is carried out only after good watering:
- dissolve potassium sulfate in water (1 tablespoon per bucket) and immediately water the plants;
- 10 tbsp dilute superphosphate in 10 l of water and leave for 3 days, not forgetting to stir from time to time. Dilute the resulting concentrate with water in a ratio of 1: 9 and only then water the plants;
- you can mix these top dressings - pour 1 liter of concentrated superphosphate infusion into a bucket with diluted potassium sulfate and immediately pour. No need to store this mixture for longer than 15 minutes. to avoid the effects of a chemical reaction.
For foliar top dressing in August, you can use the following tool: 100-150 g of superphosphate dissolved in a bucket of water and sprinkled on the leaves of the plant.
Supporters of mineral fertilizers should not forget about the effectiveness of organics. In practice, they can be combined.
This type of fertilizer has proven itself as a top dressing of fruit and ornamental plants. For feeding in the second half of summer, a mullein on sawdust litter is suitable - with a particularly low nitrogen content.
For 1/5 of the fertilizer bucket, take 1 cup of wood ash, pour water and mix well. This infusion is recommended to water flowering shrubs once a month, and fruit plants - once every 2 weeks. Consumption per 1 m² of landings - 1 bucket of diluted fertilizer.
Fill a barrel or other large container 1/3 with chicken droppings and add water. Mix well and let stand for several days. Dilute the resulting concentrate with water 1:10 and water the wells near the trees and bushes well.
Ready-made organic fertilizers
If it is not possible to use mullein or chicken droppings, then you can use ready-made organic fertilizers sold in garden stores. They include concentrated manure or humus. In the instructions you will find a detailed description of the use of such a tool.
These are pet bones processed to a powdered state. In addition to phosphorus, it contains potassium, magnesium, iron, iodine, zinc and other substances. Depending on the production process, flour is divided into 3 types with different percentage of phosphorus. Bone meal can be used as fertilizer throughout the growing season of the plant. Since the percentage of nitrogen in it is insignificant, feeding with bone meal in the second half of summer will be very helpful ..
As foliar top dressing use a solution of ash. In a 10 liter bucket of water, dissolve 1-2 glasses of ash and let stand for 2-3 days. Strain the solution and sprinkle the plants. Such top dressing is carried out during the appearance of the ovary and after harvesting.
Ashes, as a source of potassium, it is good to conduct root top dressing by digging it into the near-stem circle of fruit and ornamental plants.
Do not use ash for plants such as blueberries, lingonberries, cranberries and other acid soil lovers.
Many gardeners use carbohydrate feeding of fruit plants with starch during the fruiting period. It fills the berries with sucrose, fructose and glucose.
This carbohydrate feeding is carried out on fruit plants during flowering and in July, when the berry gains weight. 200-300 grams of starch must be brewed like jelly and diluted with cold water to a volume of 10 liters. Approximate consumption - 2 liters per 1 berry bush. After this fertilizer, the berry will become sweeter, and the plant itself will well prepare for the upcoming wintering.
Features of fertilizing under fruit and ornamental plants
Whatever fertilizer you choose for plants in the second half of summer, there are general recommendations for their use:
- nitrogen fertilizers are minimized, the emphasis is on phosphorus and potash;
- we carry out foliar top dressing in the morning or in the evening, avoiding hit of sunshine on leaves, or in cloudy but not rainy weather;
- Better to apply less fertilizer than to increase the rate and destroy the plants.
To fertilize ornamental and fruit plants, a groove breaks out in the area of the crown projection. If the tree is an adult, then 2-3 grooves are made with a depth of 15-20 cm at a distance of 40-50 cm from each other. For a young tree or shrub, one such groove is sufficient. Fertilizer in dry or diluted form is introduced into the recess and buried under the ground. If top dressing is not diluted with water, then thorough watering is required.
In practice, fertilizer of perennial plants is also used. "Buffet method". Its feature is that along the perimeter of the trunk circle, dig deep holes at a distance of 30-40 cm with a scoop. Fertilizers are introduced into them and covered with earth. The principle of action is that the tree begins to grow roots adapted to the fertilizer applied, and it feeds itself with them.
Fertilizing through foliage - foliar top dressing has proven quite effective. They are carried out through spraying with diluted fertilizer of the entire crown of the plant.
Dear readers! Each fruit and ornamental plant has its own characteristics and requirements. A considerable influence is also exerted by the soil composition on the site. Only by analyzing all the available data, you can make the right decision when choosing the type of fertilizer for plants. Remember that in the case of fertilizers - better not to overfeed than overfeed!
Healthy and beautiful plants for you!