Forsythia is a spectacular early flowering shrub with bright yellow flowers densely covering the bare branches of the plant. One of the very first decorations of the spring garden, Forsythia blossoms in our region in February-March, and its flowering lasts until April, when fresh leaves blossom to replace withering flowers. Without Forsythia, spring gardens would lose some of their charm.
Forsythia (Forsythia), or Forsythia, or forcing, - a genus of shrubs and small trees of the Olive family, blooming in beautiful yellow flowers.
The name of the plant is given by the name of the English botanist William Forsyth. It combines 6 species common in East Asia and 1 species in Southeast Europe.
All species are similar in their morphological and biological characteristics, as well as in the nature of use. This is perhaps one of the primary flowering shrubs; when most of the trees and shrubs stand bare or barely begin to turn green, Forsythias are covered with beautiful golden-yellow flowers, similar to bells, and for 20-25 days they delight us with their elegant appearance.
During this period, a rare shrub can compare with them in the abundance and beauty of flowers; appearing after flowering, simple or triple, light green leaves in the fall are painted in bright colors. In the temperate zone of Russia most often grown Forsythia ovoidor oval drooping, or hanging, and intermediate. In the south of Russia you can grow European Forsythia, dark green and many other varieties.
Features of Forsythia cultivation
Location: Forsyths love light and places protected from the wind, but can grow in the shade.
The soil: humus, sheet land, sand (1: 1: 2). The plant is well related to liming. When planting in acidic soil make 300-400 g of slaked lime or 200 g of wood ash in the pit. Drainage from broken brick or crushed stone with a layer of 15-20 cm, sand on top with a layer of 5-8 cm.
Landing: the distance between plants is 1.5–2 m. Planting depth is 50–70 cm. Pit dimensions: 50x50 or 70x50 cm. It is better to plant and transplant in the fall, without waiting for frosts.
In early spring, in April, 60–70 g / sq. m, after flowering: when laying new flower buds, it is recommended that the Kemira station wagon at a rate of 100-120 g / sq. m. With normal rainfall, watering is not needed. Forsythia tolerates dry weather better than excess water in the soil. However, in hot and dry summers, they are watered once a month with 10-12 liters per plant, then they are loosened and mulched with earth. When weeding weeds, the earth is loosened on the bayonet of a shovel.
In early spring, around plants, but not close to its branches and trunks, they are laid out with a thick layer of rotted manure and watered abundantly. This is both mulch and organic fertilizer at the same time. Every spring, frozen and dry old shoots, as well as from a third to half of the faded inflorescences, are necessarily removed. When pruning "on a stump", the plant grows quickly and restores the crown, as well as when shortening the faded old branches. For winter, shelter with a dry leaf, spruce branches, bending branches to the ground is recommended.
Forsythia easily propagates by green and lignified cuttings, as well as layering.
In June, cut green cuttings and root them under a film - in sand or perlite. The process can be accelerated by keeping the cuttings in a solution of root formation stimulants (“Kornevin”, “Heteroauxin”, “Epin”).
Propagation by lignified cuttings is also a simple matter. In October, cut thick annual shoots into cuttings of 15 cm each, stick them in loose soil so that two or three buds remain on the surface, and cover with dry leaves. When you remove the leaves in spring, many cuttings will begin to grow and turn into seedlings by autumn.
When propagating by layering in summer or autumn, bend the lower young branch to the ground, fasten it with studs and sprinkle it with fertile soil - roots quickly form on it. And in the spring, cut this branch from the bush. And next year, flowers will appear on the new plant. Before bending a branch, drag it with wire or cut a bark on it - then the roots will appear faster.
Types of Forsythia
In central Russia, forsythia is best planted - it is the most winter-hardy.
Forsythia (Forsythia) ovoid - a low (1.5–2 m) spreading shrub native to Korea. It has a light yellowish-gray bark and juicy green leaves. In April, its branches are covered with bright yellow flowers. This species is best planted in central Russia - it is the most winter-hardy. In the Moscow Region, egg-shaped forsition does not even need to be covered for the winter, because only the tips of young shoots freeze in the most severe colds. And the frozen bushes are perfectly restored. Most often, there are two varieties - dwarf ‘Arnold Dwarf’ - a dense bush that does not bloom too lushly, and ‘Tetragold’ - with a more powerful bush.
Forsythia (Forsythia) drooping, or crying, or drooping imported to Europe from China. Shrub up to 3 m tall with beautiful, arched curved branches. Sometimes they hang to the ground and take root. Forsythia hanging branches are reddish-brown, with a tetrahedral cross-section. And the leaves are either simple, or of three lobes of an oblong shape. This Forsythia blooms early with large, bell-like golden yellow flowers with orange stripes inside. On the branches they are located one at a time or in groups of three to six pieces.
In central Russia, the plant is covered for the winter, but in the more southern regions it feels great. A more winter-hardy form of this plant is Forsythia Siebold. She has very flexible stems that can be thrown on a trellis or spread on the ground.
Forsythia (Forsythia) green most suitable for warm climates. In the middle lane it must be carefully sheltered for the winter. And in the spring it is important to choose the right moment when to open the bush - so that it can bloom and at the same time the buds do not freeze.
Forsythia (Forsythia) medium, or hybrid, or intermediate very popular in the West. They got it by crossing forsitia dark green and drooping. This is a three-meter shrub with thick branches and oblong leaves, with teeth along the edge. The plant is also quite cold-resistant. There are several forms of intermediate Forsythia, for example dense - with light yellow flowers bunched, or primrose - with flowers at the base of the shoots. And one and the other can be grown in the middle lane, the main thing is to cover them for the winter.
Among deciduous shrubs, Forsythia are famous for their exceptional decorativeness. Due to the early and long flowering, they look good not only in single and group plantings on lawns, but also as a component of complex compositions. Well leafy species can be successfully used to create very beautiful, dense hedges. In the flowering state, they are especially effective against the background of dark green conifers. In addition, Forsythia bushes planted in advance in tubs can be used for winter forcing, and cut branches in January-February and put into water will give you in 8-10 days a delicate bouquet of bright golden flowers that can decorate any interior.
You can admire the bloom of Forsythia not only in the garden and not only in spring. Distillation of its shoots will create the atmosphere of spring and celebration in the cold season. It is only necessary to prepare them in advance.
Shoots are cut off as soon as snow falls, but before frost. Choose annual branches 40-50 cm long, in which the core diameter is not more than half the diameter of the shoot - others can rot.
Sprinkle the cut shoots with snow, or, wrapping in several plastic bags, put in the refrigerator.
To awaken shoots, lower them for 4-5 hours in water (30-35 ° C). Dissolve sugar (50 g per liter) in water and place forsythia branches in it. Four days later, flower buds will begin to appear on them, and after another five days, flowers.
Forsythia diseases and pests
Diseases and pests are practically stable.
Withering. Spraying with foundationazole or cineb, a captan with adhesives, concentration 0.2-0.5%. With bacteriosis, the removal of plants along with the roots is recommended. If nematodes are detected, it is necessary to disinfect the soil with carbathion.