We grow garlic correctly
The high healing properties of garlic are due to its extremely rich chemical composition: it contains more than 26% carbohydrates, 6.5% protein, up to 20 mg of ascorbic acid, arsenic compounds that have a therapeutic effect when consumed in their raw form. Garlic also has the strongest phytoncidal (bactericidal) effect. Young leaves and teeth are used for food. Garlic is used for pickling and pickling vegetables and mushrooms.
There are three types of garlic: winter shooter, winter non-shooter, spring non-shooter. The names "winter" and "spring" determine the timing of planting material landing.
Popular varieties of garlic
Mushroom anniversary. Winter, cold-resistant, shooting, sharp. The weight of the bulb is up to 40 g, the number of teeth is 11, the coverts are purple.
Gribovsky-60. Winter, rifleman, sharp. The bulb is large, the number of teeth is 7 - 11, the covering scales are reddish-purple.
Komsomolets, Winter, cold-resistant, shooting, sharp. The bulb is large, the number of teeth is 7 - 11, the covering scales are pink with a purple tint.
Otradnensky. The bulb is large, the number of teeth is 4 - 6, the covering scales are pink with a purple tint.
Danilovsky local. Winter, non-shooting, sharp. The bulb is large, the number of teeth is 6–11, the coverts are lilac scales.
Growing winter garlic
Winter garlic is planted in the fall. Winter varieties of garlic shoot, but there are also non-shooting ones. In shoot garlic, in addition to the underground bulb, an inflorescence forms on the arrow, in which aerial bulb bulbs grow.
The main signs of winter garlic are the presence of an arrow, the size of the bulb, the number of teeth, the shape and color of the covering scales of the teeth.
Preparing the garden for planting garlic
Under garlic, plots with fertile loamy neutral soils are diverted. The best precursors for garlic are pumpkin, cabbage, bean and green crops. You can not grow garlic in soils where onions and garlic grew earlier than after 3 to 4 years.
The bed is made in a sunny, dry place. The preparation of the beds begins in August, i.e., one and a half months before planting winter garlic.
For 1 m² of loamy soil, a bucket of humus or compost is brought in, a tablespoon of superphosphate and nitrophosphate, as well as a glass of dolomite flour or fluff lime. A bucket of peat is also added to clay soils.
An additional bucket of loamy soil is added to peat soils. In sandy soils along a bucket of clay soil, peat and all that is recommended for loamy beds.
They dig everything to a depth of 18 - 20 cm.
After digging, the bed is leveled and slightly compacted. Then it is treated with a solution of copper sulfate (40 g is diluted in 10 l of water) at the rate of 1 l per 10 m? beds. The bed is covered with a film before planting garlic.
Planting dates for winter garlic
Winter garlic is planted 35 to 45 days before a cold snap. During this time, the planted teeth should take root and form a good root system, penetrating to a depth of 10 - 12 cm, but at the same time leaves should not sprout from them.
Teeth have been planted in cold areas since September 20, in the more southern ones since October 15. Early planted garlic sprouts, and late planted garlic freezes.
Preparing the garlic for planting
For autumn planting, freshly harvested winter garlic is used. Healthy, well-dried bulbs are selected for planting. They are divided into teeth, avoiding mechanical damage. The teeth are sized to large and medium and washed in a solution of sodium chloride (3 tablespoons in 5 liters of water) for 1-2 minutes. Then they are transferred to a solution of copper sulfate (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water) also for 1 min. After this, the teeth, without washing with water, are planted on ridges.
Furrows 6–8 cm deep at a distance of 20–25 cm from each other are made along the beds. The teeth are planted in the grooves so that from the soil surface to the tooth there are 4-5 cm, and the tooth from the tooth is at a distance of 6 - 8 cm. When planting, the teeth are placed vertically with the bottom down or placed on the barrel.
After 2 to 3 weeks, peat or a humus layer is sprinkled on a bed up to 2 cm for better wintering of garlic.
Winter Garlic Care
In the early spring shoots appear. They must be puffed to a depth of 2 - 3 cm.
Garlic is watered during May, June and the first ten days of July, and watering is stopped 20 days before harvesting. Irrigation rate depends on air temperature. Approximate doses: per 1 m 10-12 l of water once every 8 to 10 days. In rainy summers do not water. In a very hot time, garlic is watered after 5-6 days. Watering can be combined with top dressing.
First feeding make with the formation of 3 to 4 leaves. In 10 liters of water, 1 tablespoon of urea is diluted or watered by sprinkling from a watering can, spending 2 to 3 liters of solution per 1 m? .
Second feeding carried out two weeks after the first: 2 tablespoons of nitrofoski or nitroammophoski are diluted in 10 liters of water, Agricola liquid fertilizer (3 to 4 liters are consumed per 1 meter) or Fertility organic fertilizer (2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water , consumption of 4 - 5 liters per 1 m?).
Third, last feeding spend approximately in the second decade of June, when the onion is being formed. In 10 liters of water, 2 tablespoons of (preferably ground) superphosphate are diluted, 4-5 liters of solution per 1 m are consumed.
Growing Winter Garlic from Bulb Air Bulbs
In June, winter garlic forms flower arrows, at the end of which, instead of an inflorescence, air bulbs (bulbs) develop. If gardeners are interested in obtaining large underground heads of garlic, then flower arrows shortly after their appearance break off (do not pull out!) Or cut obliquely, leaving a small column, up to 2 - 3 cm.
When planting winter garlic with its teeth, a lot of it is consumed, which not everyone can afford. Therefore, on the best garlic plants, arrows with inflorescences are left and, having waited until the inflorescence wrapper bursts and the air bulbs acquire a color characteristic of the variety, the plants are completely pulled out of the soil and dried.
Before sowing, air bulbs are freed from the inflorescence, the largest ones are selected and sown under the winter from September 5 to October 10. A decent little tooth grows from one small bulb in July, which will be the best material for planting in the winter on a large bulb of garlic.
Small bulb bulbs are planted in the garden.
The height of the beds can be 12 - 15 cm, width - no more than 90 cm. At 1 m? add 3 kg of humus or compost, a tablespoon of superphosphate and dig, level and make across the beds of the grooves with a depth of 2-3 cm at a distance of 10 cm from each other. Bulbs are laid out in a groove at a distance of 1-2 cm. Then the grooves are covered with soil and left under the winter.
If winter promises to be cold, then the beds are mulched, they are covered with sawdust with a layer of 2 - 3 cm. These sawdust is removed in the spring, as soon as the soil begins to thaw.
Planting care during the spring-summer period is the same as garlic planting with cloves.
Harvesting winter garlic is the end of July - the beginning of August. The signs of ripening winter garlic of the shoot varieties are cracking of the inflorescence wrapper, and in the plants on which the arrows were cut, complete yellowing and lodging of the leaves.
If you are late for harvesting the garlic, then the covering scales will begin to burst, and the bulb itself will disintegrate into the teeth. Such garlic is not suitable for storage.
After digging with a pitchfork, the garlic is dried for up to 12 days under a canopy or in an open sunny place, in cloudy weather it must be removed to the room.
Growing spring garlic
Spring garlic is grown in the same way as winter, on a fertile plot, with the introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers in the same doses and according to the same predecessors. The teeth of spring garlic are planted at a distance of 6-8 cm with row spacing of 20 - 25 cm. The depth of embossing of the clove is 2 - 3 cm from the soil surface to the top of the clove. Clogging the teeth deeper is not recommended, otherwise the garlic ripens later.
Spring garlic is planted at the earliest possible date - April 20-25. The size of the cloves of spring garlic is slightly smaller compared to winter. Before planting, the bulb is divided into teeth, they are immediately calibrated to size and planted large, medium and small separately. Plant garlic in moist soil. When planting, teeth should not be pressed into the soil, while the soil is compacted and root growth is inhibited. It is necessary to make a groove of the required depth on the bed and put the teeth into it.
When seedlings appear, they are fed with nitrogen fertilizer. In 10 l of water, a tablespoon of urea and a glass of mullein are diluted, 3 l of solution per 1 m² is consumed. This top dressing is repeated 10 days after the first. Further care consists in weeding weeds, loosening to a shallow depth (1.5-2 cm). During May and June, the soil is kept moist, watered once every 5-6 days.
At the beginning of the formation of bulbs, plants need phosphorus-potassium fertilizing. In 10 l of water, 2 tablespoons of double superphosphate and a tablespoon of potassium sulfate or potassium chloride are bred. The feeding rate is 5 l of solution per 1 m². This top dressing is also repeated after 10 days. Between top dressing, plants add wood ash at the rate of 1 glass per 1 m².
Spring garlic is removed when the leaves of the lower tier are massively dried, as well as when the leaves of the upper tier are yellowed and lodged - from August 20 to September 10. Garlic is picked from the soil and laid out on a bed for drying for 6-8 days. Then harvested and cut. The length of the left neck after trimming is 4-5 cm.
After drying well, the garlic bulbs are laid in storage. It can be stored in a warm (17..18 ° С) and cold (1..3 ° С) way.
See also our detailed material: How to grow a good garlic crop?
- Encyclopedia of the gardener and gardener - O. Ganichkina, A. Ganichkin.